World banking systems
In world practice there are the following banking systems:
1) two-level: 1st level – Central Bank, 2nd level – commercial banks;
2) a decentralized banking system of the United States – the US Federal Reserve;
3) centralized state banking system of command economies (USSR and other former and present socialist countries).
There are also Islamic banks operating on the basis of Sharia. These banks issue interest-free loans, and the mechanism for their operation is non-market.
In all countries with market economies, with the exception of the USA, there is a two-tier system from the central bank and commercial banks. But there are significant differences in the powers of the Central Bank of different countries.
In France, the Bank of France, the National Credit Council and the Banking Control Commission are subordinate to the Ministry of Finance. The Bank of France has a monopoly on the issue of money, but its functions as the country’s main bank are controlled by the government. Many banking operations are carried out by the Treasury of France. Great in France is the state banking sector. Specialized investment (business) banks have been allocated to a special group.
The Bank of England is currently one of the most government-dependent banks. He submits to the treasury, but took over many of the functions of the latter. The Bank of England must publish its balance sheet on a weekly basis, a quarterly bulletin, and an annual report on its activities. A special role is played by clearing banks, among which at the end of the 20th century were the four largest banks in the country. These banks are the basis of the UK banking system (15 thousand branches). Clearing banks, along with other activities, carry out offsets of mutual claims, offsets of payment documents and securities through the London Clearing House.
In the UK, the National Savings Bank (NSB), which is one of the largest public savings institutions in the world. NRC is a division of the Ministry of National Savings. This bank uses post offices as branches. The competitor of the NBF is a joint-stock Trust Savings Bank or Trust and Savings Bank, which has united trust savings banks. But in general, the public sector in the banking sector in the UK is traditionally not large. It also includes the National Girobank (quasi-state), which deals with the calculations of government departments and local authorities with the population.
In the UK, the following types of commercial banks can be distinguished:
– deposit banks. These include clearing banks;
– trade banks. These banks carry out operations related to foreign trade;
– Commonwealth banks – seven foreign banks;
– foreign banks in the UK (450);
– accounting houses (9) – perform short-term operations in the money market.
In Germany, implemented a two-tier system: German Federal Bank – commercial banks. Central Bank of Germany is independent of the government. Along with commercial banks, including specialized ones, in Germany there are state savings banks involved in attracting household deposits. The system of savings banks and grease centers for their service is headed by the German municipal bank.
A huge number of credit institutions in Germany (over 4 thousand with 49 thousand branches, one credit institution for 1600 residents) allows you to implement competitive financial markets in all areas of banking. For example, the gross assets of gross banks (German, Dresden and Commercial) account for about 10% of the assets of the entire banking system of the country.
In Japan, the banking system includes the Bank of Japan (CB), commercial banks and specialized lending institutions, including private and public lending institutions. The Bank of Japan is a bank of banks and manages the country’s banking system. The public sector in the banking sector of Japan is represented by the Japan Development Bank, the Import Bank of Japan, and 9 banking state corporations (Small Business Finance Corporation, People’s Finance Corporation, etc.). The main role of the public sector in the banking industry is lending to promising projects, restructuring industries.
Accumulation of public funds, along with the city and private banks, are engaged in postal savings banks.
In Japan, 220 stock companies, like the American credit system, specialize in securities transactions. Those. Japanese banks do not engage in these operations.
In the United States, the Federal Reserve System (US Federal Reserve System), which functions as a central bank, includes 12 federal reserve banks in various regions of the country that control the activities of banks that are members of the Fed and determine the monetary policy of the United States. The Fed members are more than 70% of all commercial banks. These banks are customers of one of the 12 federal reserve banks. At the head of the US banking system is the Board of Governors of the Fed (in Washington). The Fed does not depend on the executive branch (president).